2019 OHIO CORN PERFORMANCE TEST
R.J. Minyo, A.B. Geyer, P.R. Thomison, Horticulture & Crop
D.G. Lohnes, Information Technology
Ohio State University Extension/Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center
Department of Horticulture and Crop Science Series 215, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
The purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test (OCPT) is to evaluate corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming operations and production environments. Corn hybrids differ considerably in yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test locations and years. The presentation of data does not imply endorsement of any hybrid by The Ohio State University.
Seed companies marketing corn hybrids in Ohio are invited to enter hybrids in the test. An entry fee is charged to cover expenses. In 2019, companies were permitted to enter an unlimited number of hybrids. Ten sites were available for hybrid evaluation. Testing was available in three regions of Ohio (Southwestern/West Central/Central; Northwestern; North Central/ Northeastern). Companies were required to enter a hybrid at all the sites within a testing region. Each hybrid entry was evaluated using three replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Hybrids were planted either in an early or full season maturity trial based on relative maturity information provided by the companies. In the Southwestern/West Central/Central region, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 111 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 112 days or later. In the Northwestern and North Central/Northeastern regions, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 108 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 109 days or later. Hybrids were planted with an Almaco Seed Pro 360 plot planter with SkyTrip GPS. Each plot consisted of four 30-inch rows approximately 25 feet long. Force 3G soil insecticide was applied in a T-band to all plots. Seed companies selected a final stand and percent overplant for each hybrid entered. Fertilizer, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides were applied according to recommended cultural practices for obtaining optimum grain yields. Details concerning the establishment and management of each 2019 test are listed in footnotes below the tables.
|SOIL TYPE||BLOUNT SILT LOAM||CANFIELD SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||6.5, 104, 360||5.9, 106, 360|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 24 / OCT 29||MAY 24 / NOV 4|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||MINIMUM TILL|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||210, 26, 120, 6S||232, 84, 75, 6S|
|COOPERATOR||CRAWFORD COUNTY EXTENSION||MIKE SWORD/KEN SCAIFE, OARDC||B & B FARMS|
|SOIL TYPE||LURAY SILTY CLAY LOAM||HOYTVILLE CLAY||BLOUNT SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||6.0, 74, 228||6.5, 106, 336||6.4, 136, 332|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 16 / OCT 30||JUNE 12 / NOV 18||JUNE 22 / NOV 26|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||STALE SEED BED||MINIMUM TILL|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||302, 26, 120, 42S||210, 26, 0, 6S||224, 104, 90, 6S|
|COOPERATOR||PARRISH FARMS||MATT DAVIS, OARDC||LARRY ROSS|
|SITE||SOUTH CHARLESTON||WASHINGTON C.H.||GREENVILLE|
|SOIL TYPE||KOKOMO SILT LOAM||PATTON SILTY CLAY LOAM||CROSBY SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||6.2, 142, 354||6.7, 122, 354||6.8, 186, 440|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||JUNE 7 / NOV 6||MAY 22 / OCT 14||JUNE 4 / OCT 18|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||MINIMUM TILL||STALE SEEDBED|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||240, 80, 57, 6S||240, 169, 180, 6S||194, 26, 84, 6S|
|COOPERATOR||JOE DAVLIN, OARDC||SOLLARS FARM||STUMP FARMS|
|SOIL TYPE||BLOUNT SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||6.3, 132, 384|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||JUNE 4 / OCT 28|
|TILLAGE||FALL STRIP TILL|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||210, 26, 0, 6S|
|COOPERATOR||NICK WILLIAMS FARMS|
Soil Test / Fertilizer (N) P & K reported as lbs./acre.
MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDS
YIELD. The center two rows of each plot were harvested with a self propelled two row picker sheller combine. Yields were reported as bushels of grain per acre (Bu/A) at 15.5 percent moisture.
MOISTURE (HARV MST). A grain moisture determination was made from each plot with an electrical conductance moisture meter. Grain moisture was reported as percent grain moisture.
LODGING (STK LDG). The number of broken stalks in each plot was determined just prior to harvest. Only those plants with a stalk broken below the ear were considered stalk lodged. Stalk lodging was reported as a percentage of final plant stand.
FINAL STAND (FINAL STD). Seed corn producers selected a desired planting rate for each hybrid entered. Differences between the planting rate and the final stand may be attributed to seed quality and/or environmental conditions present. Populations were reported in hundreds (100/A) per acre.
EMERGENCE (EMG). An emergence count was made on each plot after plant emergence. The emergence percentage was computed based on the number of plants and the number of seed planted, and was reported as a percentage of the seeds planted.
TEST WEIGHT (TW). Test weights were recorded in pounds per bushel on grain samples at field moisture. The results are an average of all sites in the regional tests.
LSD 0.10 - Least Significant Differences at probability level 0.10 (LSD 0.10) are reported for yield and other agronomic characteristics. Differences between hybrids are significant only if they are equal to or greater than the LSD value. If a given hybrid out yields another hybrid by as much or more than the LSD value, then we are 90% confident (i.e. the odds are 10:1) that the yield difference is real, with only a 10% probability that the difference is due to chance variation (such as soil variation, etc.). For example, if Hybrid X is 19 Bu/A higher in yield than Hybrid Y, then this difference is statistically significant if the LSD is 19 Bu/A or less. If the LSD is 20 Bu/A or greater, then we are less confident that Hybrid X is really higher yielding than Hybrid Y under conditions of the test. If ‘NS’ is indicated for a characteristic, then the differences among hybrid entries are not significant at the 10% probability level.
2019 GROWING CONDITIONS
The spring of 2019 was one the wettest on record and resulted in major planting delays throughout Ohio. According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, only 33% of Ohio's corn was planted by June 2. Five of the 10 OCPT test sites were planted in June (with dates ranging from June 4 to June 22). Excessive rainfall continued into late June and early July and was followed by much drier and warmer weather from July to September, which created stressful conditions for crop growth in some regions. Warm, dry conditions during grain fill were most evident at the South Charleston, Greenville, and Washington CH test sites in the Southwestern/West Central/Central region, and, to a lesser extent, at Bucyrus and the Columbiana County sites in the North Central/ Northeastern region. The Northwestern test sites, Van Wert, Hoytville and Upper Sandusky, received adequate, timely rainfall throughout the growing season that was favorable for corn development. Foliar diseases (Northern Corn Leaf Blight and Gray Leaf Spot) and ear rots, including Gibberrella and Diplodia, were observed at several OCPT locations but were generally present at low levels. Stalk rot (primarily Anthracnose) was present but stalk lodging was generally negligible and limited to a few hybrids.
Results of the 2019 testing program are presented in Tables 1 to 10. The seed source and table location for hybrids tested in 2019 are shown in Table 11. The transgenic herbicide and insect resistant events and insecticide and fungicide seed treatments associated with each hybrid entry (information provided by seed companies) are indicated in Table 11. Hybrids that do not contain transgenic events are specified as “NON-GMO”. Yields and other agronomic performance characteristics have been averaged across the individual tests and shown under the SUMMARY heading for each region. Hybrids are listed in alphabetical order by brand.
Despite late planting dates and warmer and drier than normal conditions during grain fill, OCPT yields exceeded expectations. Averaged across hybrid entries in the early and full season tests, yields were 252 bu/A in the Southwestern/West Central/Central region, 234 bu/A in the Northwestern region, and 264 bu/A in the North Central/Northeastern region. Yields at individual test sites, averaged across hybrid entries in the early and full season tests, ranged from 215 bu/A at Hoytville to 282 bu/A at Hebron. Performance data for the Columbiana site in the North Central/ Northeastern region is not presented due to excess rainfall shortly after establishment and dry conditions during grainfill which resulted in inconsistent yields. As of publication date, Upper Sandusky in the Northwestern region was not harvested because of high grain moistures due to a late planting date. Results from Upper Sandusky will be available on-line shortly after harvest.
Confidence in test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid was tested. Table 10 presents performance data for hybrids tested at six and eight locations in 2019 and Tables 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9 provide multiple year performance data. Look for consistency in a hybrid's performance across a range of environmental conditions. Yield, standability, grain moisture, and other comparisons should be made between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted to your farm. Results of the crop performance trials for 2019 and previous years are available online at: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/corntrials. Hybrids can be sorted by yield, brand, and other variables online.
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Acknowledgments: We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2019 corn hybrid testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Joe Davlin, OSU-OARDC Western Agricultural Research Station, Ken Scaife and Mike Sword, OSU-OARDC Wooster and Matt Davis, OSU-OARDC Northwest Agricultural Research Station. We thank Kimberly Wintringham and Greg Bonnell in CFAES Marketing and Communications for their assistance in preparing the test results for publication.