2022 Ohio Corn Performance Test
2022 OHIO CORN PERFORMANCE TEST
R.J. Minyo, O. Ortez, Horticulture & Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences (CFAES) M.A. Lowe, CFAES Wooster Research Operations and D.G. Lohnes, CFAES Information Technology
Ohio State University Extension/Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center
The purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test (OCPT) is to evaluate corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming operations and production environments as well as recommendations made by seed companies and breeding programs. Corn hybrids differ considerably in yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test locations and years. The presentation of results in this report does not imply endorsement of any hybrid by The Ohio State University.
Seed companies marketing corn hybrids in Ohio are invited to enter hybrids in the test. An entry fee is charged to cover expenses. In 2022, companies were permitted to enter an unlimited number of hybrids. Ten sites were available for hybrid evaluation covering three regions of Ohio (Southwestern/West Central/Central, Northwestern, North Central/Northeastern). Seed companies were required to enter a hybrid at all the sites within a testing region. Each hybrid entry was evaluated using three replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Hybrids were planted either in an early- or full-season maturity trial based on relative maturity information provided by the companies. In the Southwestern/West Central/Central region, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early-maturity trial was 111 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full-season trial was 112 days or later. In the Northwestern and North Central/Northeastern regions, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early-maturity trial was 108 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full-season trial was 109 days or later. Hybrids were planted with an Almaco Seed Pro 360 plot planter with SkyTrip GPS. Each plot consisted of four 30-inch rows approximately 25 feet long. Force 6.5 soil insecticide was applied in a T-band to all plots. Seed companies selected a final stand and percent overplant for each hybrid entered. Fertilizer, herbicides, insecticides, and foliar fungicides were applied according to recommended cultural practices for obtaining optimum grain yields. Details concerning the establishment and management of each 2022 test are listed in footnotes below the tables for each location.
|SOIL TYPE||ELLIOT SILT LOAM||CANFIELD SILT LOAM||CANFIELD SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)|
|PREVIOUS CROP||SOYBEANS||DOUBLE CROP SOYBEANS|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 31 / NOV 19||MAY 15 / OCT. 23 & NOV 10|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||232, 26, 0, 6S||228, 26, 137, 19S|
|COOPERATOR||CRAWFORD COUNTY EXTENSION||MIKE SWORD / KEN SCAIFE, CFAES WOOSTER||MYRON WEHR|
|SITE||VAN WERT||HOYTVILLE||UPPER SANDUSKY|
|SOIL TYPE||BLOUNT SILT LOAM||HOYTVILLE CLAY||MILFORD SILTY CLAY LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 20 / OCT 24||MAY 21 / NOV 15|
|TILLAGE||NO TILL||MINIMUM TILL|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||225, 26, 120, 6S||224, 104, 90, 6S|
|COOPERATOR||NICK WILLIAMS FARM||MATT DAVIS, CFAES Outlying Stations||LARRY ROSS FARM|
|SITE||SOUTH CHARLESTON||WASHINGTON C.H.||GREENVILLE|
|SOIL TYPE||KOKOMO SILT LOAM||PATTON SILTY CLAY LOAM||CROSBY SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||JUNE 1 / NOV 3||MAY 24 / OCT 21|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||STALE SEEDBED|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||238, 156, 195, 6S||210, 26, 0, 6S|
|COOPERATOR||JOE DAVLIN, CFAES Outlying Stations||SOLLARS FARM||STUMP FARMS|
|SOIL TYPE||LURAY SILTY CLAY LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 19 / NOV 5|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||265, 26, 120, 6S|
Soil Test reported as Melich3 ppm / Fertilizer N, P, K & S reported as lbs./acre.
MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDS
YIELD. The center two rows of each plot were harvested with a self propelled two row research combine. Yields were reported as bushels of grain per acre (Bu/A) at 15.5 percent moisture.
MOISTURE (Harv Mst). A grain moisture determination was made from each plot with an electrical conductance moisture meter. Grain moisture was reported as percent grain moisture.
LODGING (Stk Ldg). The number of broken stalks in each plot was determined just prior to harvest. Only those plants with a stalk broken below the ear were considered stalk lodged. Stalk lodging was reported as a percentage of final plant stand.
FINAL STAND (Final Std). Seed companies selected a desired planting rate for each hybrid entered. Differences between the planting rate and the final stand may be attributed to seed quality and/or environmental conditions present. Populations were reported in hundreds per acre (100/A).
EMERGENCE (Emg). An emergence count was made on each plot after plant emergence. The emergence percentage was computed based on the number of plants and the number of seeds planted and was reported as a percentage of the seeds planted.
TEST WEIGHT (TW). Test weights were recorded in pounds per bushel on grain samples at field moisture. The results are a summary (average) of all sites in each region.
LSD 0.10 - Least Significant Differences at probability level 0.10 (LSD 0.10) are reported for yield and other agronomic characteristics. Differences between hybrids are significant only if they are equal to or greater than the LSD value. If a given hybrid out yields another hybrid by as much or more than the LSD value, then we are 90% confident (i.e., the odds are 10:1) that the yield difference is real, with only a 10% probability that the difference is due to chance variation (such as soil variation, etc.). For example, if Hybrid X is 19 Bu/A higher in yield than Hybrid Y, then this difference is statistically significant if the LSD is 19 Bu/A or less. If the LSD is 20 Bu/A or greater, then we are less confident that Hybrid X is really higher yielding than Hybrid Y under conditions of the test. If ‘NS’ is indicated for a characteristic, then the differences among hybrid entries are not significant at the 10% probability level.
2022 GROWING CONDITIONS
Growing conditions in 2022 were favorable for some areas but not across the state. One of the main challenges was a delayed start to the planting season. By May 8, only 5% of corn was planted in Ohio, according to USDA reports. By May 29, 72% of Ohio’s corn was planted and 28% had yet to be planted. Some conditions that favored these delays included wet soil (surplus moisture and standing water in many areas) and below-average temperatures (April and early May). Heavy rains after planting led to high variability of results in three out of the 10 hybrid performance test sites (South Charleston in the Southwest, Hoytville in the Northwest, and Bucyrus in the North Central region), these results are not presented.
Rainfall in the 2022 growing season was variable across sites; it ranged from 13.3 inches (Columbiana in the Northeast) to 26.9 inches (Hebron in the Southwest). Heat-unit accumulation was generally greater at OCPT sites in the Southwestern/West Central/Central and Northwestern regions (with heat-unit accumulation ranging from 2,734 to 2,968 growing degree days or GDDs) than at sites in the North Central/Northeastern region (2,504 and 2,707 GDDs). Overall, the heat-unit accumulation was lower in 2022, relative to 2021 results.
Foliar diseases, primarily gray leaf spot and northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), were present at nearly all sites, although fungicide was applied anywhere between VT/R1 and early brown silk (R2). Ear rots, primarily Gibberella (GER) and/or Diplodia, were present at most sites. The severity of the disease pressure was variable by location and hybrid differences were observed.
Additionally, tar spot was observed late in the season (R4 and R5 stages) at all locations, except at Hebron. When tar spot appears late in the season, less yield impact is expected. Above normal temperatures and below average precipitation in late October and early November promoted crop maturation and dry down. Field conditions were suitable for harvest the second half of October and early November.
Results of the 2022 testing program are presented in Tables 1 to 10. Yields and other agronomic performance characteristics have been averaged across the individual test sites and shown under the “Summary” heading for each region in Tables 1 through 9. A combined regional summary of hybrid performance is presented in Table 10. The brand, seed source, hybrid number, and table location for hybrids tested in 2022 are summarized in Table 11. Hybrids are listed in alphabetical order by brand. Additionally, the technology traits (e.g., herbicide and insect resistant events) and seed treatments (e.g., insecticide and fungicide) associated with each hybrid entry are indicated in Table 11 (information provided by seed companies).
Yields varied across the state depending on rainfall distribution, timing, and total precipitation received. Despite fluctuating temperatures and variable precipitation during grain fill, OCPT yields exceeded expectations. Averaged across hybrid entries in the early- and full-season tests, yields were 270 Bu/A in the Southwestern/West Central/Central region, 252 Bu/A in the Northwestern region, and 261 Bu/A in the North Central/Northeastern region. Yields at individual test sites, averaged across hybrid entries in the early- and full-season tests, ranged from 226 Bu/A at Van Wert to 278 Bu/A at Upper Sandusky. The Van Wert test site was especially dry in late June/early July and averaged lower yields than other test locations. The precipitation timing and totals were extremely variable across the state throughout the growing season. Gibberella and other ear molds were observed in some hybrids at most locations. Especially high levels of GER were found in Wooster. Moderate to high levels of gray leaf spot were evident in a few hybrids at the Washington Court House site. Heavy northern corn leaf blight pressure at Van Wert may have reduced the yields in susceptible hybrids. Lodging was largely absent across locations, except at Upper Sandusky where some hybrids lodged because of strong winds in early November.
Confidence in test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid is tested. Table 10 presents combined performance data for hybrids tested at five and seven locations in 2022. Tables 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, and 9 provide multiple-year performance data as well. Look for consistency in a hybrid’s performance across a range of environmental conditions. Yield, standability, grain moisture, and other comparisons should be considered between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted to each location or region.
We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2022 OCPT. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Matt Lowe, CFAES Wooster Farm Operations, with establishing the test plots; Joe Davlin, Western Agricultural Research Station; Matt Davis, Northwest Agricultural Research Station; and Ken Scaife and Mike Sword, CFAES Wooster. We thank Stacy Cochran and Juliette Portisch, CFAES Knowledge Exchange, for their assistance in preparing the 2022 test results for publication.
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