2021 Ohio Corn Performance Test
2021 OHIO CORN PERFORMANCE TEST
R.J. Minyo, A.B. Geyer, Horticulture & Crop Science
M.A. Lowe, FAES Research
Operations and D.G. Lohnes, Information Technology
Ohio State University Extension/Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center
The purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test (OCPT) is to evaluate corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming operations and production environments. Corn hybrids differ considerably in yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test locations and years. The presentation of data does not imply endorsement of any hybrid by The Ohio State University.
Seed companies marketing corn hybrids in Ohio are invited to enter hybrids in the test. An entry fee is charged to cover expenses. In 2021, companies were permitted to enter an unlimited number of hybrids. Ten sites were available for hybrid evaluation. Testing was available in three regions of Ohio (Southwestern/West Central/Central; Northwestern; North Central/ Northeastern). Companies were required to enter a hybrid at all the sites within a testing region. Each hybrid entry was evaluated using three replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Hybrids were planted either in an early or full season maturity trial based on relative maturity information provided by the companies. In the Southwestern/West Central/Central region, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 111 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 112 days or later. In the Northwestern and North Central/Northeastern regions, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 108 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 109 days or later. Hybrids were planted with an Almaco Seed Pro 360 plot planter with SkyTrip GPS. Each plot consisted of four 30-inch rows approximately 25 feet long. Force 6.5 soil insecticide was applied in a T-band to all plots. Seed companies selected a final stand and percent overplant for each hybrid entered. Fertilizer, herbicides, insecticides and foliar fungicides were applied according to recommended cultural practices for obtaining optimum grain yields. Details concerning the establishment and management of each 2021 test are listed in footnotes below the tables.
|SOIL TYPE||ELLIOT SILT LOAM||CANFIELD SILT LOAM||CANFIELD SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||6.4, 27, 100||6.2, 42, 118||6.7, 55, 126|
|PREVIOUS CROP||SOYBEANS||SOYBEANS||DOUBLE CROP SOYBEANS|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 20 / NOV 8||MAY 16 / NOV 19||MAY 15/ NOV 5|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||MINIMUM TILL||MINIMUM TILL|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||225, 26, 0, 6S||225, 26, 0, 6S||228, 26, 137, 19S|
|COOPERATOR||CRAWFORD COUNTY EXTENSION||MIKE SWORD / KEN SCAIFE, OARDC||MYRON WEHR|
|SITE||VAN WERT||HOYTVILLE||UPPER SANDUSKY|
|SOIL TYPE||PEWAMO SILTY CLAY LOAM||HOYTVILLE CLAY||BLOUNT SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||5.9, 16, 85||6.6, 56, 149||5.9, 79, 150|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 19 / OCT 22||MAY 18 / NOV 16||MAY 22 / NOV 17|
|TILLAGE||NO TILL||STALE SEEDBED||MINIMUM TILL|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||225, 26, 120, 6S||210, 26, 0, 6S||224, 104, 90, 6S|
|COOPERATOR||NICK WILLIAMS FARM||MATT DAVIS, OARDC||LARRY ROSS FARM|
|SITE||SOUTH CHARLESTON||WASHINGTON C.H.||GREENVILLE|
|SOIL TYPE||KOKOMO SILT LOAM||BROOKSTON SILTY CLAY LOAM||CROSBY SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||6.8, 71, 150||6.2, 79, 170||6.3, 81, 170|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 25 / OCT 19||MAY 21 / NOV 9||MAY 24 / NOV 6|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||MINIMUM TILL||STALE SEEDBED|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||230, 26, 0, 6S||238, 156, 195, 6S||210, 26, 0, 6S|
|COOPERATOR||JOE DAVLIN, OARDC||SOLLARS FARM||STUMP FARMS|
|SOIL TYPE||LURAY SILTY CLAY LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||6.4, 50, 129|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 21 / OCT 23|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||265, 26, 120, 6S|
Soil Test reported as Melich3 ppm / Fertilizer N, P, K & S reported as lbs./acre.
MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDS
YIELD. The center two rows of each plot were harvested with a self propelled two row picker sheller combine. Yields were reported as bushels of grain per acre (BU/A) at 15.5 percent moisture.
MOISTURE (HARV MST). A grain moisture determination was made from each plot with an electrical conductance moisture meter. Grain moisture was reported as percent grain moisture.
LODGING (STK LDG). The number of broken stalks in each plot was determined just prior to harvest. Only those plants with a stalk broken below the ear were considered stalk lodged. Stalk lodging was reported as a percentage of final plant stand.
FINAL STAND (FINAL STD). Seed corn producers selected a desired planting rate for each hybrid entered. Differences between the planting rate and the final stand may be attributed to seed quality and/or environmental conditions present. Populations were reported in hundreds (100/A) per acre.
EMERGENCE (EMG). An emergence count was made on each plot after plant emergence. The emergence percentage was computed based on the number of plants and the number of kernels planted, and was reported as a percentage of the kernels planted.
TEST WEIGHT (TW). Test weights were recorded in pounds per bushel on grain samples at field moisture. The results are an average of all sites in the regional tests.
LSD 0.10 - Least Significant Differences at probability level 0.10 (LSD 0.10) are reported for yield and other agronomic characteristics. Differences between hybrids are significant only if they are equal to or greater than the LSD value. If a given hybrid out yields another hybrid by as much or more than the LSD value, then we are 90% confident (i.e. the odds are 10:1) that the yield difference is real, with only a 10% probability that the difference is due to chance variation (such as soil variation, etc.). For example, if Hybrid X is 19 Bu/A higher in yield than Hybrid Y, then this difference is statistically significant if the LSD is 19 Bu/A or less. If the LSD is 20 Bu/A or greater, then we are less confident that Hybrid X is really higher yielding than Hybrid Y under conditions of the test. If ‘NS’ is indicated for a characteristic, then the differences among hybrid entries are not significant at the 10% probability level.
2021 GROWING CONDITIONS
Growing conditions were very favorable for corn production across most of Ohio in 2021. The growing season was characterized by well above or above average rainfall and heat unit accumulation (growing degree-days). Precipitation and heat unit accumulation were generally greater at OCPT sites in the SW/WC/C region (with rainfall ranging from 20.3 to 29.4 inches and heat unit accumulation ranging from 3044 to 3210 GDDs) than at sites in the NW and NC/NE regions. Moreover, rainfall was generally well distributed at these sites. The impact of dry conditions in late June and July on crop performance at the Van Wert site in NW Ohio and the Bucyrus site in NE/NC Ohio were generally mitigated by timely rains in late August and September. Due to the warm, wet conditions, foliar diseases (primarily gray leaf spot & northern corn leaf blight) were present at nearly all tests. Ear rots (primarily Gibberella and Diplodia ear rots) were present at Hebron and Columbiana. However, the severity of the disease pressure was variable by location, and it was usually most pronounced for a limited number of hybrids. Warm temperatures in mid-October promoted crop maturation and dry down but persistent rains in September through November slowed harvest across most of the state.
Results of the 2021 testing program are presented in Tables 1 to 10. The seed source and table location for hybrids tested in 2021 are shown in Table 11. The transgenic herbicide and insect resistant events and insecticide and fungicide seed treatments associated with each hybrid entry (information provided by seed companies) are indicated in Table 11. Hybrids that do not contain transgenic events are specified as “NON-GMO”. Yields and other agronomic performance characteristics have been averaged across the individual tests and shown under the SUMMARY heading for each region. Hybrids are listed in alphabetical order by brand.
Yields varied across the state depending on rainfall patterns, timing and total precipitation received. With above average temperatures and adequate precipitation during grain fill, OCPT yields exceeded expectations. Averaged across hybrid entries in the early and full season tests, yields were 283 bu/A in the Southwestern/West Central/Central region, 255 bu/A in the Northwestern region, and 266 bu/A in the North Central/Northeastern region. Yields at individual test sites, averaged across hybrid entries in the early and full season tests, ranged from 224 bu/A at Van Wert to 302 bu/A at Hebron. The Van Wert and Bucyrus test sites were especially dry in late June & July and averaged lower yields than other test locations. The rain events in late August & early September recharged the soil profile and contributed to full season hybrids grain fill which averaged consistently higher yields than the early maturity test hybrids. Moldy grain was observed in some hybrids at Hebron and Columbiana. Moderate to high levels of gray leaf spot were evident in a few hybrids at Washington C.H. Heavy Northern Corn Leaf Blight pressure at Van Wert and Bucyrus may have reduced the yields in more susceptible hybrids. Lodging was largely absent across sites except at Upper Sandusky where some hybrids lodged as a result of heavy rains and strong winds in early November.
Confidence in test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid was tested. Table 10 presents performance data for hybrids tested at seven and ten locations in 2021 and Tables 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9 provide multiple year performance data. Look for consistency in a hybrid's performance across a range of environmental conditions. Yield, standability, grain moisture, and other comparisons should be made between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted to your farm.
We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2021 corn hybrid testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Matt Lowe, OSU Farm Operations -Wooster, establishing the test plots, Joe Davlin, OSU-OARDC Western Agricultural Research Station, Ken Scaife and Mike Sword, OSU-OARDC Wooster and Matt Davis, OSU-OARDC Northwest Agricultural Research Station.
All educational programs conducted by Ohio State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, age, disability or Vietnam era veteran status.
Dr. Jacqueline Wilkins, director, OSU Extension.
TDD No. 800 589 8292 (Ohio only) or 614 292 1868