2012 OHIO CORN PERFORMANCE TEST
R.J. Minyo, A.B. Geyer, P.R. Thomison, Horticulture & Crop
B.L. Bishop, and D.G. Lohnes, Information Technology
Ohio State University Extension/Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center
Department of Horticulture and Crop Science Series 215, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
The purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test is to evaluate corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming operations and production environments. Corn hybrids differ considerably in yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test locations and years. The presentation of data does not imply endorsement of any hybrid by The Ohio State University.
Seed companies marketing corn hybrids in Ohio are invited to enter hybrids in the test. An entry fee is charged to cover expenses. In 2012, companies were permitted to enter an unlimited number of hybrids. Ten sites were available for hybrid evaluation. Testing was available in three regions of Ohio (Southwestern/West Central/Central; Northwestern; North Central/ Northeastern). Companies were required to enter a hybrid at all the sites within a testing region. Each hybrid entry was evaluated using three replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Hybrids were planted either in an early or full season maturity trial based on relative maturity information provided by the companies. In the Southwestern/ West Central/Central region, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 110 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 111 days or later. In the Northwestern and North Central/Northeastern regions, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 108 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 109 days or later. Hybrids were planted with a commercial type planter adapted for plot planting. Each plot consisted of four 30-inch rows approximately 25 feet long. Force 3G soil insecticide was applied in a T-band to all plots. Seed corn producers selected a final stand and percent overplant for each hybrid entered. Fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides were applied according to recommended cultural practices for obtaining optimum grain yields. Details concerning the establishment and management of each 2012 test are listed in footnotes below the tables.
|SOIL TYPE||BLOUNT SILT LOAM||CANFIELD SILT LOAM||FITCHVILLE SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||5.7, 114, 416||6.0, 117, 308||5.2, 163, 329|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 15 / NOV 6||MAY 7 / OCT 24||MAY 2 / OCT 9|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||MINIMUM TILL||NO TILL|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||180,40,40||200, 40, 40||160,40,40|
|COOPERATOR||CRAWFORD CNTY EXTENSION||OARDC||B & B FARMS|
|SOIL TYPE||LURAY SILTY CLAY LOAM||HOYTVILLE CLAY||BLOUNT SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||5.4, 96, 327||5.9, 105, 414||5.5, 106, 384|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||APRIL 30 / SEPT 29||MAY 3 / OCT 22||MAY 16 / NOV 9|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||MINIMUM TILL||MINIMUM TILL|
|COOPERATOR||PARRISH FARMS||MATT DAVIS, OARDC||LARRY ROSS FARM|
|SITE||SOUTH CHARLESTON||WASHINGTON C.H.||GREENVILLE|
|SOIL TYPE||KOKOMO SILT LOAM||PEWAMO SILT LOAM||KOKOMO SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||5.7, 125, 356||5.7, 123, 545||6.0, 157, 578|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 18 / NOV 7||APRIL 30 / OCT 19||MAY 4 / OCT 10|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||MINIMUM TILL||NO TILL|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||220,40,40||240, 140, 110||180,40,40|
|COOPERATOR||JOE DAVLIN, OARDC||SOLLARS FARM||STUMP FARMS|
|SOIL TYPE||BLOUNT SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||5.9, 121, 338|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 11 / OCT 25|
Soil Test / Fertilizer (N) P & K reported as lbs./acre.
MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDS
YIELD. The center two rows of each plot were harvested with a self propelled two row picker sheller combine. Yields were reported as bushels of grain per acre (BU/A) at 15.5 percent moisture.
MOISTURE (HARV MST). A grain moisture determination was made from each plot with an electrical conductance moisture meter. Grain moisture was reported as percent grain moisture.
LODGING (STK LDG). The number of broken stalks in each plot was determined just prior to harvest. Only those plants with a stalk broken below the ear were considered stalk lodged. Stalk lodging was reported as a percentage of final plant stand.
FINAL STAND (FINAL STD). Seed corn producers selected a desired planting rate for each hybrid entered. Differences between the planting rate and the final stand may be attributed to seed quality and/or environmental conditions present. Populations were reported in hundreds (100/A) per acre.
EMERGENCE (EMG). An emergence count was made on each plot after plant emergence. The emergence percentage was computed based on the number of plants and the number of seed planted, and was reported as a percentage of the seeds planted.
MID SILK (SILK). The mid silk date is the Julian day of the year in which 50% of the plants show silks at one site in a region.
TEST WEIGHT (TW). Test weights were recorded in pounds per bushel on grain samples at field moisture. The results are an average of all sites in the regional tests.
LSD 0.05 - Least Significant Differences at probability level 0.05 (LSD 0.05) are reported for yield and other agronomic characteristics. Differences between hybrids are significant only if they are equal to or greater than the LSD value. If a given hybrid out yields another hybrid by as much or more than the LSD value, then we are 95% confident (i.e. The odds are 19:1) that the yield difference is real, with only a 5% probability that the difference is due to chance variation (such as soil variation, etc.). For example, if Hybrid X is 19 Bu/A higher in yield than Hybrid Y, then this difference is statistically significant if the LSD is 19 Bu/A or less. If the LSD is 20 Bu/A or greater, then we are less confident that Hybrid X really is higher yielding than Hybrid Y under conditions of the test. If ‘NS’ is indicated for a characteristic, then the differences among hybrid entries are not significant at the 5% probability level.
GROSS INCOME IN $/ACRE. Calculated using corn price of $7.00 per bushel and $0.03 drying charge for each percentage of moisture above 15.5%.
2012 GROWING CONDITIONS
Record high temperatures and below average rainfall characterized the Ohio 2012 growing season. At most OCPT sites, drier and much warmer than normal conditions persisted from the early vegetative stages through early to mid grainfill. All test sites except Wooster, experienced one or more days with temperatures of 100 degrees F or more during the late vegetative stages, the critical pollination period and/or the early grain fill stages from late June to mid July. Greenville and Van Wert experienced a total of five days with temperatures (and four consecutive days) of 100 degrees F or more. Greater than normal rainfall and cooler than normal temperatures in September slowed kernel maturation and delayed drydown and harvest.
Results of the 2012 testing program are presented in Tables 1 to 10. The seed
source and table location for hybrids tested in 2012 are shown in Table 11. The
transgenic herbicide and insect resistant events and insecticide and fungicide
seed treatments associated with each hybrid entry (information provided by seed
companies) are indicated in Table 11. Hybrids that do not contain transgenic
events are specified as “NON-GMO”. Yields and other agronomic performance
characteristics have been averaged across the individual tests and shown under
the SUMMARY heading for each region. Hybrids are listed in alphabetical order by
At most test sites, the impact of high temperatures in July on crop performance was limited because it either preceded pollination or timely rainfall and adequate soil moisture reduced adverse effects. Yields were highest at S. Charleston and Washington CH (averaging 233 and 231 bu/A, respectively) and lowest at Beloit and Greenville (averaging 148 and 154 bu/A, respectively). Several locations, including S. Charleston, Upper Sandusky and Van Wert, experienced green snap injury and widespread root lodging due to strong winds in June 30 to July 1. There was considerable variability among hybrids for root lodging and green snap. Much of the root lodged corn recovered and showed little evidence of injury at harvest. However, green snap injury generally broke stalks off near or at the base of the plant. Averaged across the early and full season maturity tests, % green snap for hybrids evaluated at S. Charleston, Upper Sandusky and Van Wert averaged (range indicated in parentheses) 6% (0-44%), 3% (0-35%), and 1% (0-21%), respectively. Below average temperatures and persistent rains in September and October delayed crop maturation and resulted in higher than normal grain moisture at harvest at certain locations. Despite the water stress present at most sites, stalk lodging was negligible – averaging no more than 7% at any location. Extensive foliar disease (northern corn leaf blight and gray leaf spot) was evident late in the season at some locations but impact on crop performance appeared to be limited.
Confidence in test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid was tested. Table 10 presents performance data for hybrid tested at seven to ten locations in 2012 and Tables 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9 provide multiple year performance data. Avoid relying on data from a single test site, especially if the site was characterized by abnormal growing conditions. Look for consistency in a hybrid's performance across a range of environmental conditions. Yield, standability, grain moisture, and other comparisons should be made between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted to your farm.
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Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. And Director, OSU Extension.
TDD No. 800 589 8292 (Ohio only) or 614 292 1868
Acknowledgments: We thank our farmer cooperators for their
contributions to the 2012 corn hybrid testing program. We are grateful for the
assistance provided by Joe Davlin, OSU-OARDC Western
Agricultural Research Station, Lynn Ault, OSU-OARDC Wooster, Matt Davis,
OSU-OARDC Northwest Agricultural Research Station, Howard Siegrist, OSU-
Extension Licking Co., and Steve Prochaska, OSU- Extension Crawford Co. We thank
Dave Scardena in Communications and Technology for his assistance in preparing
the test results for publication.