2011 OHIO CORN PERFORMANCE TEST
R.J. Minyo, A.B. Geyer, P.R. Thomison, Horticulture & Crop
B.L. Bishop, and D.G. Lohnes, Information Technology
Ohio State University Extension/Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center
Department of Horticulture and Crop Science Series 215, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
The purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test is to evaluate corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming operations and production environments. Corn hybrids differ considerably in yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test locations and years. The presentation of data does not imply endorsement of any hybrid by The Ohio State University.
Seed companies marketing corn hybrids in Ohio are invited to enter hybrids in the test. An entry fee is charged to cover expenses. In 2011, companies were permitted to enter an unlimited number of hybrids. Ten sites were available for hybrid evaluation. Testing was available in three regions of Ohio (Southwestern/West Central/Central; Northwestern; North Central/ Northeastern). Companies were required to enter a hybrid at all the sites within a testing region. Each hybrid entry was evaluated using three replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Hybrids were planted either in an early or full season maturity trial based on relative maturity information provided by the companies. In the Southwestern/ West Central/Central region, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 110 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 111 days or later. In the Northwestern and North Central/Northeastern regions, the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 108 days or earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 109 days or later. Hybrids were planted with a commercial type planter adapted for plot planting. Each plot consisted of four 30-inch rows approximately 25 feet long. Force 3G soil insecticide was applied in a T-band to all plots. Seed corn producers selected a final stand and percent overplant for each hybrid entered. Fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides were applied according to recommended cultural practices for obtaining optimum grain yields. Details concerning the establishment and management of each 2011 test are listed in footnotes below the tables.
|SOIL TYPE||BLOUNT SILT LOAM||CANFIELD SILT LOAM||FITCHVILLE SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||6.7,77,372||6.6, 47, 244||6.7, 43, 293|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 12 / NOV 3||MAY 10 / OCT 31||MAY 11 / NOV 1|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||MINIMUM TILL||NO TILL|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||180,40,40||200, 40, 40||180,40,40|
|COOPERATOR||CRAWFORD CNTY EXTENSION||LYNN AULT, OARDC||B & B FARMS|
|SOIL TYPE||LURAY SILTY CLAY LOAM||HOYTVILLE CLAY||BLOUNT SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||6.9, 55, 252||6.9, 78, 454||6.6, 94, 348|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 31 / NOV 5||JUNE 3 / NOV 10||JUNE 3 / NOV 12|
|TILLAGE||MINIMUM TILL||STALE SEEDBED||MINIMUM TILL|
|COOPERATOR||PARRISH FARMS||MATT DAVIS, OARDC||LARRY ROSS FARM|
|SITE||SOUTH CHARLESTON||WASHINGTON C.H.||GREENVILLE|
|SOIL TYPE||KOKOMO SILT LOAM||PEWAMO SILT LOAM||KOKOMO SILT LOAM|
|SOIL TEST (pH,P,K)||6.1, 78, 348||7.0, 82, 457||6.4, 121, 414|
|PLANTING /HARVEST DATES||MAY 31 / NOV 6||MAY 22 / NOV 2||MAY 24 / OCT 25|
|TILLAGE||STALE SEEDBED||MINIMUM TILL||NO TILL|
|FERTILIZER (N,P,K)||220,40,40||220, 40, 40||180,40,40|
|COOPERATOR||CLARENCE RENK, OARDC||SOLLARS FARM||STUMP FARMS|
MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDS
YIELD. The center two rows of each plot were harvested with a self propelled two row picker sheller combine. Yields were reported as bushels of grain per acre (BU/A) at 15.5 percent moisture.
MOISTURE (HARV MST). A grain moisture determination was made from each plot with an electrical conductance moisture meter. Grain moisture was reported as percent grain moisture.
LODGING (STK LDG). The number of broken stalks in each plot was determined just prior to harvest. Only those plants with a stalk broken below the ear were considered stalk lodged. Stalk lodging was reported as a percentage of final plant stand.
FINAL STAND (FINAL STD). Seed corn producers selected a desired planting rate for each hybrid entered. Differences between the planting rate and the final stand may be attributed to seed quality and/or environmental conditions present. Populations were reported in hundreds (100/A) per acre.
EMERGENCE (EMG). An emergence count was made on each plot after plant emergence. The emergence percentage was computed based on the number of plants and the number of seed planted, and was reported as a percentage of the seeds planted.
MID SILK (SILK). The mid silk date is the Julian day of the year in which 50% of the plants show silks at one site in a region.
TEST WEIGHT (TW). Test weights were recorded in pounds per bushel on grain samples at field moisture. The results are an average of all sites in the regional tests.
LSD 0.05 - Least Significant Differences at probability level 0.05 (LSD 0.05) are reported for yield and other agronomic characteristics. Differences between hybrids are significant only if they are equal to or greater than the LSD value. If a given hybrid out yields another hybrid by as much or more than the LSD value, then we are 95% confident (i.e. The odds are 19:1) that the yield difference is real, with only a 5% probability that the difference is due to chance variation (such as soil variation, etc.). For example, if Hybrid X is 19 Bu/A higher in yield than Hybrid Y, then this difference is statistically significant if the LSD is 19 Bu/A or less. If the LSD is 20 Bu/A or greater, then we are less confident that Hybrid X really is higher yielding than Hybrid Y under conditions of the test. If ‘NS’ is indicated for a characteristic, then the differences among hybrid entries are not significant at the 5% probability level.
GROSS INCOME IN $/ACRE. Calculated using corn price of $6.00 per bushel and $0.03 drying charge for each percentage of moisture above 15.5%.
2011 GROWING CONDITIONS
Environmental conditions varied considerably across Ohio during the 2011 growing season, especially with regard to the amount and distribution of precipitation. Excessive rainfall in April and May delayed planting – three test sites were planted in mid-May; four in late May, and two in early June. Nevertheless, yields at the late planted sites far exceeded expectations (averaging above 200 bu/A). At some of the test sites planted in May (Van Wert and Washington CH), stand reductions occurred due to excessive soil moisture. Saturated soil conditions resulted in seedling blights and limited early season root development resulting in shallow root systems. Several sites (Van Wert, Greenville, and Upper Sandusky) experienced warmer and drier than average conditions from June through July. However, major yield loss to water stress was usually limited by timely rains and adequate soil moisture. Other test sites received adequate rainfall that was well distributed throughout the growing season. Rainfall was above normal at all test sites in September during late grainfill and maturation.
Results of the 2011 testing program are presented in Tables 1 to 10. The seed source and table location for hybrids tested in 2011 are shown in Table 11. The transgenic herbicide and insect resistant events and insecticide and fungicide seed treatments associated with each hybrid entry (information provided by seed companies) are indicated in Table 11. Hybrids that do not contain transgenic events are specified as “NON-GMO”. Yields and other agronomic performance characteristics have been averaged across the individual tests and shown under the SUMMARY heading for each region. Hybrids are listed in alphabetical order by brand.
Performance data for Van Wert in the NW region and for the early maturity trial at Washington CH in the SW/WC/C region are not reported because heavy rains shortly after planting resulted in excessive soil moisture that that led to major stand reduction. Several locations, including Wooster, Hoytville and Upper Sandusky, experienced widespread root lodging due to strong winds in mid-July. However nearly all the affected corn recovered and showed little evidence of root lodging at harvest. A period of high temperatures in July had little effect on crop performance because it either preceded pollination or timely rainfall and adequate soil moisture limited adverse effects. Yields were highest at Hebron in the Central region and Upper Sandusky in the NW region (averaging slightly above 250 bu/A) and lowest at Greenville in the SW/WC/C region (averaging about 184 bu/A). In contrast to 2010, below average temperatures and persistent rains during late grain fill in September delayed crop maturation and resulted in much higher than normal grain moisture at harvest. Despite varying degrees of stress present at several sites, stalk lodging was negligible – averaging no more than 5% at any location. Extensive foliar disease (primarily northern corn leaf blight) was evident late in the season at several locations but impact on crop performance appeared to be limited.
Confidence in test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid was tested. Data from a single test site should be avoided, especially if the site was characterized by abnormal growing conditions. Look for consistency in a hybrid's performance across a range of environmental conditions. Yield, standability, grain moisture, and other comparisons should be made between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted to your farm. Results of the crop performance trials for 2011 and previous years are available online at: https://u.osu.edu/perf and http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/corntrials/. Hybrids can be sorted by yield, brand, and other variables online.
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Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. And Director, OSU Extension.
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Acknowledgments: We thank our farmer cooperators for their
contributions to the 2011 corn hybrid testing program. We are grateful for the
assistance provided by Clarence Renk and Joe Davlin, OSU-OARDC Western
Agricultural Research Station, Lynn Ault, OSU-OARDC Wooster, Matt Davis,
OSU-OARDC Northwest Agricultural Research Station, Howard Siegrist, OSU-
Extension Licking Co., and Steve Prochaska, OSU- Extension Crawford Co. We thank
Dave Scardena in Communications and Technology for his assistance in preparing
the test results for publication.