2006 Ohio Corn Performance Test
R.J. Minyo Jr.1, A.B. Geyer1, P.R. Thomison1, B.L. Bishop2, and D.G. Lohnes2
Ohio Corn Performance Test, 1Department of Horticulture and Crop Science and 2Computing & Statistical Services, The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.
The purpose of the Ohio Corn Performance Test is to evaluate corn hybrids for
yield, grain quality, and other important agronomic characteristics. Results of
the test can assist farmers in selecting hybrids best suited to their farming
operations and production environments. Corn hybrids differ considerably in
yield potential, standability, maturity, and other agronomic characteristics
that affect profitable crop production. Hybrid selection should be based on
proven performance from multiple test locations and years. The presentation of
data does not imply endorsement of any hybrid by The Ohio State University.
Seed companies marketing corn hybrids in Ohio were invited to enter hybrids
in the test. An entry fee was charged to cover expenses. Companies were
permitted to enter an unlimited number of hybrids. Ten sites were available for
hybrid evaluation. Testing was available in three regions of Ohio (Southwestern
and West Central; Northwestern; North Central and Northeastern). Companies were
required to enter a hybrid in three sites within a testing region. Testing was
also conducted at Coshocton (east central Ohio) in an area of high gray leaf
spot incidence. Evaluation techniques for hybrids at this location were similar
to those used in the regional testing program. Each hybrid entry in the regional
trials is evaluated using three replications per site in a randomized complete
block design. In the regional tests, hybrids were planted either in an early or
full season maturity trial based on relative maturity information provided by
the companies. In the Southwestern and West Central region, the relative
maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 110 days or earlier;
the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was 111 days or
later. In the Northwestern and North Central and Northeastern regions, the
relative maturity of hybrid entries in the early maturity trial was 108 days or
earlier; the relative maturity of hybrid entries in the full season trial was
109 days or later. At Coshocton, four replications were used and hybrids were
not evaluated separately by maturity.
MEASUREMENTS AND RECORDS
YIELD. The center two rows of each plot were harvested with a self propelled two row picker sheller combine. Yields were reported as bushels of grain per acre (BU/A) at 15.5 percent moisture.
MOISTURE (HARV MST). A grain moisture determination was made from each plot with an electrical conductance moisture meter. Grain moisture was reported as percent grain moisture.
LODGING (STK LDG). The number of broken stalks in each plot was determined just prior to harvest. Only those plants with a stalk broken below the ear were considered stalk lodged. Stalk lodging was reported as a percentage of final plant stand.
FINAL STAND (FINAL STD). Seed corn producers selected a desired planting rate for each hybrid entered. Differences between the planting rate and the final stand may be attributed to seed quality and/or environmental conditions present. Populations were reported in hundreds (100/A) per acre.
EMERGENCE (EMG). An emergence count was made on each plot after plant emergence. The emergence percentage was computed based on the number of plants and the number of kernels planted, and was reported as a percentage of the kernels planted.
MID SILK (SILK). The mid silk date is the Julian day of the year in which 50% of the plants show silks at one site in a region.
TEST WEIGHT (TW). Test weights were recorded in pounds per bushel on grain samples at field moisture. The results are an average of all three sites in the regional tests.
PROTEIN - OIL - STARCH (PROT-OIL-STRCH). An analysis for crude protein, oil, and starch was performed on dried samples by the OSU Grain Quality Laboratory using a near‑infrared transmittance whole grain analyzer with a SystemOne program calibration. Results are reported as percent protein, oil, and starch content at 15.0 percent grain moisture.
LSD 0.05 - Least Significant Differences at probability level 0.05
(LSD 0.05) are reported for yield and other agronomic characteristics.
Differences between hybrids are significant only if they are equal to or greater
than the LSD value. If a given hybrid out yields another hybrid by as much or
more than the LSD value, then we are 95% confident (i.e. the odds are 19:1) that
the yield difference is real, with only a 5% probability that the difference is
due to chance variation (such as soil variation, etc.). For example, if Hybrid X
is 19 Bu/A higher in yield than Hybrid Y, then this difference is statistically
significant if the LSD is 19 Bu/A or less. If the LSD is 20 Bu/A or greater,
then we are less confident that Hybrid X really is higher yielding than Hybrid Y
under conditions of the test. If ‘NS’ is indicated for a characteristic, then
the differences among hybrid entries are not significant at the 5% probability
2006 GROWING CONDITIONS
Environmental conditions varied greatly across Ohio during the 2006 growing season, especially with regard to the amount and distribution of precipitation. Cool, wet soil conditions during emergence and early vegetative growth were followed by warm, dry conditions that began in mid-late July. Temperatures during grain fill were warmer than normal and rainfall was generally below normal. However, after Sept 1 conditions were cooler and wetter than normal. The month of October was the second wettest in 124 years and 2006 was one of the latest, coldest, and wettest harvest seasons of the last 40 years.
Results of the 2006 testing program are presented in Tables 1 to 11. The seed source and table location for hybrids tested in 2006 are shown in Table 12. The transgenic herbicide and insect resistant events, and insecticide and fungicide seed treatments associated with each hybrid entry are indicated in Table12. In the tables for the regional trials, yields and other agronomic performance characteristics have been averaged across the individual tests and shown under the SUMMARY heading. Hybrids are listed in increasing order of summary grain moisture content at harvest in the regional trials.
Performance data for the Greenville test site in the southwestern region and the Beloit test site in Northeastern Ohio are not presented. At Greenville, cold wet conditions shortly after planting May 9 resulted in reduced, uneven stands and erratic yields. Highly variable field conditions at Beloit were associated with inconsistent yield levels. Cutworm injury in early June resulted in stand reduction and uneven plant growth at S. Charleston. Although growing conditions were generally warmer and drier than normal during the grain fill period (approx. mid July through late August), excellent yields were recorded at several test sites. Stalk lodging was most pronounced at Washington Courthouse with lodging averaging 35% for the early maturity test.
Confidence in test results increases with the number of years and the number of locations in which the hybrid was tested. Data from a single test site should be avoided, especially if the site was characterized by abnormal growing conditions. Look for consistency in a hybrid's performance across a range of environmental conditions. Grain moisture percentage at harvest can provide a basis for comparing hybrid maturity, especially when grain moisture levels average above 20% at a test site. Yield, standability, test weight, and other comparisons should be made between hybrids of similar maturity to determine those best adapted to your farm. Since environmental conditions affect grain composition, the values reported for protein, oil, and starch should be used for comparison purposes and not as absolute values for feeding.
We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2006 corn hybrid testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Clarence Renk, OARDC Western Branch, Lyn Ault, OARDC Wooster, Matt Davis, OARDC Northwest Branch, Jim Rich, FFA/Riverview High School, Andy Kleinschmidt, OSU-Van Wert Co. Extension, and Steve Prochaska, OSU- Crawford Co. Extension. We thank Dave Scardena in Communications and Technology for his assistance in preparing the test results for publication.