2015 Ohio Forage Performance Trials
J.S. McCormick, Research Associate, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science
R.M. Sulc, Extension Forage Agronomist, Dept. of Horticulture and Crop Science
D. J. Barker, Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science
Joe Davlin, Manager, Western Agricultural Research Station, OARDC
Matt Davis, Manager, Northwest Agricultural Research Station, OARDC
Lynn Ault, Manager, Schaffter Farm, Wooster, OARDC
This report is a summary of performance data collected from forage
variety trials in Ohio during 2015, including commercial varieties of
alfalfa, red clover, white clover, orchardgrass, tall fescue and annual
ryegrass in tests planted in 2011 to 2015 across three sites in Ohio: South
Charleston, Wooster, and North Baltimore. For more details on forage species
and management, see the Ohio Agronomy Guide, Ohio State University Extension
Bulletin 472, which can be purchased from Ohio State University Extension's
eStore at http://estore.osu-extension.org/.
Yield data are reported in Tables 2 through 11. Details
of establishment and management of each test are listed in footnotes below
the tables. Least significant differences (LSD) are listed at the bottom of
Tables 3 through 11. Differences between varieties are significant only if
they are equal to or greater than the LSD value. If a given variety out
yields another variety by as much or more than the LSD value, then we are
95% sure that the yield difference is real, with only a 5% probability that
the difference is due to chance alone. For example, if variety X is 0.50
ton/acre higher in yield than variety Y, then this difference is
statistically significant if the LSD is 0.50 or less.
The CV value or coefficient of variation, listed at the bottom of each
table is used as a measure of the precision of the experiment. Lower CV
values will generally relate to lower experimental error in the trial.
Uncontrollable or unmeasured variations in soil fertility, soil drainage,
and other environmental factors contribute to greater experimental error and
higher CV values. However, higher CV values can also occur simply as a
result of the mean yield being low (eg. due to weather conditions), because
the CV is a function of the mean yield. So a higher CV will often occur
where yields are low despite there being no increase in experimental error.
Results reported here should be representative of what
might occur throughout the state but would be most applicable under
environmental and management conditions similar to those of the tests. The
relative yields of all forage legume varieties are affected by crop management
and by environmental factors including soil type, winter conditions, soil
moisture conditions, diseases, and insects.
Alfalfa has the highest combined yield and quality
potential of any adapted perennial forage grown in Ohio. It is grown on
about 330,000 acres. Alfalfa requires well-drained soils with near-neutral
pH (6.5-7.0) for greatest production and persistence. Alfalfa trials are
initiated each year and data is collected for at least four years unless the
stand becomes so depleted that further testing is no longer worthwhile;
variety performance should be evaluated over several sites and years.
for Selecting Alfalfa Varieties
To capitalize on alfalfa's potential, select high-yielding varieties with
resistance to problem diseases. Alfalfa variety rankings for a number of
traits described below are reported on the University of Wisconsin forage
these factors when selecting alfalfa varieties for Ohio:
Yield is critical to profitability of an alfalfa
stand. Select varieties with high yields over several locations and years.
Table 2 shows this comparison in percent of the average test yield.
Varieties that perform equally well across several locations and years are
adapted to a wider range of environmental conditions, which is important
because soils may vary on your farm and weather conditions vary from year to
Another important consideration is how long the alfalfa stand
will last. Study variety performance by age of stand to get an estimate of
longevity of productivity. Some varieties may decline with age more rapidly
than others, which may influence your variety choice depending on how long
you intend to keep the stand. For long-term rotations, choose varieties with
good disease resistance and good performance in the fourth year. If you plan
to harvest alfalfa for three years or less, then high performance during the
first three years should be given priority.
Fall dormancy (FD).
Alfalfa varieties with fall dormancy ratings of 1
through 5 are considered adequately winter hardy for Ohio conditions while
those of 6 or higher are not considered adapted. Varieties with higher fall
dormancy ratings tend to grow at a lower temperature, so they begin growth
earlier in the spring and continue growth later into the fall. The fall
dormancy rating does not correlate well with winter hardiness within the
range of varieties adapted to the Midwest USA.
Variety selection based on yield
performance alone is less satisfactory than selections that also consider
disease resistance characteristics. Resistance to specific disease-causing
pathogens may be the most important attribute in an alfalfa variety.
Pathogens can dramatically reduce yield and persistence of susceptible
varieties. In an evaluation of older versus newer alfalfa varieties we found
that newer varieties yielded more and persisted longer than older varieties,
primarily because of improved resistance to diseases that affected the
Alfalfa varieties have been developed for resistance to potato leafhopper
(PLH), which is the most consistently damaging insect pest of alfalfa in
Ohio. The PLH resistant varieties are not resistant to the alfalfa weevil,
and they will need to be protected from that pest like all standard alfalfa
varieties when weevil populations exceed the economic action threshold.
Compare to check variety.
For comparisons of varieties across
several trials, always compare varieties to the same check variety planted
within the trial. The variety Vernal is used as a check in all Ohio trials
and is commonly included in trials in other states. Another good way to
compare varieties across trials is to look at their yield in relation to the
trial average reported in Table 2.
Use good management.
No variety can produce well under poor management. Good management considers
all aspects of alfalfa production: seed bed preparation, liming and
fertilization, seeding, pest control, harvest, storage, and post harvest
treatment. Many newer varieties are better adapted to intensive management.
Summary of 2015 Crop Conditions
Rainfall was quite variable across the three locations with only June
being consistently above normal for all three locations. Total rainfall for
the growing season was below normal at Wooster, normal at S. Charleston, and
above normal at North Baltimore. Average monthly temperatures were above
normal for most of the year at Wooster and S. Charleston, except for August
which was cooler than normal. N. Baltimore was cooler than normal June to
August, otherwise temperatures were well above normal.
The 2013 seeding at Wooster had the highest yields, averaging 6.98
tons/acre (Table 5) followed closely by the 2014 seeding at S. Charleston at
6.86 tons/acre (Table 6). Lower yields were harvested from the 2011 seeding
at S. Charleston (4.60 tons/acre, Table 3) and from the 2012 seeding at N.
Baltimore (4.28 tons/acre, Table 4). The 2012 N.Baltimore seeding was lost
due to waterlogging damage soon after the second harvest in early July
(Table 4). A new spring seeding at North Baltimore was seeded on 29-April
but excessive rainfall in June and July resulted in stand failure. The trial
was reestablished on 27 August. Insecticide applications were used at all
locations for control of potato leafhopper (PLH).
Red and white clover trials were seeded in 2013 at South Charleston.
Trials were sprayed after the first harvest for potato Leafhopper (PLH)
control in 2013 and 2014 to aid new growth due to the high numbers of PLH.
Large differences in forage yield and % stand were observed among
red clover varieties in 2015. The common red and Mammoth red clovers had
lost most of their stand in 2014, averaging 15% and 30% stand respectively
at the end of 2014. The remainder of the weak stand of those two varieties
was lost in 2015, with only a few plants remaining at the end of the season
(Table 7). The other varieties have performed better, but Gallant has
persisted and yielded the best in this 3rd year of the stand (Table 7).
The white clover varieties were affected by the hard winter of
2014-2015, resulting in only the first harvest being measured for yield in
2015 (Table 8).
Red clover is better adapted than alfalfa to soils
that are somewhat poorly drained and slightly acidic; however, greatest
production will occur on well-drained soils with high water-holding capacity
and pH above 6.0. Red clover is not as productive as alfalfa in the summer
and it generally persists for a shorter time than alfalfa. New varieties are
capable of persisting into a third year.
White clover is a
short-lived perennial that is well suited for pastures. It spreads and
persists over time by vegetative propagation of stolons and by natural
reseeding. White clover tolerates periods of poor drainage, but does poorly
in dry weather.
The orchardgrass trial seeded at South Charleston had an average yield of
6.13 tons/acre. Low rainfall from August to early October reduced yields in
the fourth cutting. Orchardgrass varieties can have significant maturity
The tall fescue trial established at South Charleston in 2014 had an
average yield of 7.74 tons/acre. Low rainfall from August to early October
reduced yields in the fourth cutting. New varieties that are endophyte-free
or that contain a non-toxic endophyte have potential to provide improved
animal performance compared with the old endophyte-infected varieties,
especially during the summer grazing season, and to provide forage for beef
cattle and sheep during autumn and early winter.
In this trial we
included KY 31 as a check variety, both endophyte-free (KY 31-) and
endophyte-infected (KY 31+).
An annual ryegrass trial was planted in September 2014 but was not
harvested in late 2014 due to dry weather and cold autumn temperatures.
Winter injury ratings varied among varieties after the cold 2014-2015
winter. Forage yields in 2015 were lower than long-term average at this
location. Annual ryegrass is a cool-season annual bunchgrass that is highly
palatable and digestible. It has high seedling vigor.
Inclusion of entries in Ohio Alfalfa Performance Trials does not constitute an endorsement of a particular entry by The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, or Ohio State University Extension. Where trade names appear, no discrimination is intended, and no endorsement is implied by The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, or Ohio State University Extension.
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Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L. Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.