2005 Ohio Wheat Performance Test
Ohio State University Extension
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center
The Ohio State University
Horticulture and Crop Science Series 228 - July 2005
James Beuerlein, Professor, Dept.
Horticulture & Crop Science
Pat Lipps, Professor, Dept. Plant Pathology
Clay Sneller, Associate Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Rich Minyo, Jr., Research Associate, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial
is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield,
grain quality and other important performance characteristics. This information
gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best
suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield
potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect
resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on
performance from multiple test sites and years.
Each entry was evaluated at five test sites (see
front cover) using four replications per site in a randomized complete block
design. Plots consisted of 7 rows, 7.5 inches apart and 35 feet long.
Participating companies specified the seeding rate for each of their varieties.
Tests were planted within ten days after the fly-safe date and approximately 30
pounds of nitrogen was applied at planting followed by the addition of 70-100
pounds in early spring. Herbicides were applied as needed for weed control and
the following data were collected:
Yield is reported in
bushels per acre at 13.5 percent moisture.
Test Weight is reported in lb/bushel averaged across all locations.
Seed Size in thousands of harvested seeds per pound (Ex: 15.5 =
15,500 seeds per lb.).
Percent Lodging is the percent of plants that lean more than 45
degrees from vertical.
Plant Height is the distance from the soil surface to the top of the
Heading Date was the average calendar day of the year on which 50
percent of the heads were completely emerged. (Example: Day 136 = May 16.)
Powdery Mildew (PM) Powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe graminis) was
assessed in Wayne Co. on June 2 when most varieties were flowering (Feekes
growth stage 10.5.1). Each plot was rated based on a 0 to 10 scale where: 0 = 0
to trace % leaf area covered; 1 = leaf 4 with trace - 50%; 2 = leaf 3 with 1-5%;
3 = leaf 3 with 5-15%; 4 = leaf 3 with > 15%; 5 = leaf 2 with 1-5%; 6 = leaf 2
with 5-15%; 7 = leaf 2 with >15%; 8 = leaf 1 with 1-5%; 9 = leaf 1 with 5-15%;
and 10 = leaf 1 with >15% leaf area covered (leaf 1 = flag leaf). This scale
takes into account the percentage leaf area affected and the progress of the
disease upward on the plants.
Leaf rust Severity of leaf rust (Puccinia
triticina) was assessed as the percentage of flag leaf area covered by rust
pustules in each plot on June 14 at the Pickaway County plot. Plants were in the
soft dough stage of development (Feekes GS 11.2) and the level of rust was
relatively low on most varieties. Overall leaf rust was variable from plot to
plot except on the more susceptible cultivars. Due to the overall low level of
disease and the variability in severity across replications, differences in
resistance levels among most varieties could not be adequately assessed.
Flour Yield is the percent flour
yield from milled whole grain.
Flour Softness is the percent of fine-granular milled flour. Values
higher than approximately 50 indicate kernel textures that are appropriate
for soft wheat. Generally, high values are more desirable.
CULTURAL PRACTICES BY TEST
|Soil Test P (ppm)
|Soil Test K (ppm)
Field and weather conditions were favorable for
timely planting in October, 2004. Fall growth was marginally adequate except in
Wood County which was very dry with reduced fall growth and tillering before the
onset of winter dormancy. Winter survival was good with almost no winterkill at
any of the test sites. The weather in April and May was slightly warmer than
normal and June was 4 degrees above normal. In Wayne County, the plots headed 4
days earlier than the other test sites in northern Ohio and also had a longer
grain filling resulting in increased yield relative to other test sites. Dry
weather and higher temperatures in late June shortened the grain fill period in
Wood county resulting in reduced grain yields. There was very little disease at
most of the test sites which resulted in significantly increased yield at most
RESULTS & EVALUATIONS
Results of the
2005 wheat performance evaluation are presented in tables
1-6. Entries in the data tables are arranged in order of
increasing average heading date. A least significant
difference (LSD) value can be used to determine if the
performance of two varieties was statistically different.
The yields of two varieties are expected to be significantly
different 70 percent of the time if their yields differ by
more than the LSD value reported. Quality analysis to
determine flour yield and softness was performed by USDA-ARS
soft wheat quality laboratory, at OARDC in Wooster, OH,
Charles Gaines, director.
Test results for the 62 soft red winter wheat varieties
are presented in Table 1. Tables 2 and 3 contain multi-year
performance data for this class of wheat. Depending on
variety and test site, yields were between 54.9 and 130.0
bushels per acre, and average test weight ranged from 56.8
to 61.5 pounds per bushel. Yield differences between test
sites are primarily due to the length of the grain fill
period. The average heading date was six days later than in
2003 and 3 days later than normal. Average plant height was
four inches greater than in 2004. Variety selection should
be based on disease resistance, average yield across test
sites and years (tables 2 & 3), winter hardiness, test
weight and standability.
Three soft white winter wheat varieties were
evaluated along with the soft red varieties at sites 1, 2
and 3. Performance of those varieties is presented in Table
4, with two-year performance data in table 5.
Soft white winter wheat and hard red winter wheat should
never be mixed together or be mixed with soft red winter
wheat because they have very different flour characteristics
and end uses. Mixing of different classes of wheat destroys
their unique utility, makes them unacceptable for quality
premiums and reduces their usefulness to animal feed only.
Table 6 contains reaction of winter wheat varieties to
various diseases in Ohio.
Table 7 contains the company contact information and seed
treatments used for each variety entered in the 2005 wheat
This report can be found on the Internet at:
Any column of data can be sorted by clicking at the top of
the column, which makes it easy to arrange varieties in
order by any characteristic for comparison purposes.
Inclusion of varieties in the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial
does not constitute an endorsement of any variety by The
Ohio State University, Ohio Agriculture Research and
Development Center, or Ohio State University Extension.
Go to Ohio Crop
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State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory
basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation,
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Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June
30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Keith L.
Smith, Director, Ohio State University Extension.