James Beuerlein, Professor, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
Pat Lipps, Professor, Dept. Plant Pathology
Rich Minyo, Jr., Research Associate, Dept. Horticulture & Crop Science
The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on proven performance from multiple test sites and years.
Each entry was evaluated at five test sites using four replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Plots consisted of 7 rows, 7.5 inches apart and 35 feet long. Participating companies selected the seeding rate for each of their varieties. Test were planted within ten days after the fly-safe date with approximately 30 pounds of nitrogen applied at planting followed by the addition of about 70-100 pounds in early spring. Herbicides were applied as needed for weed control. The following data were collected:
Yield Plots were harvested with a self propelled plot harvester with yield being reported in bushels per acre at 13.5 percent moisture.
Test Weight Test weights were measured in lb/bu at all locations using harvest grain moisture.
Seed Size Thousands of harvested seeds per pound. (Example: 15.5 = 15,500 seeds / per pound.)
Percent Lodging Lodging was a visual estimate of the percent of plants that lean more than 45 degrees from vertical.
Plant Height Plant height was the distance from the soil surface to the top of the heads.
Heading Date The heading date was the average calendar day of the year on which 50 percent of the heads were completely emerged. (Example: Day 136 = May 16.)
Powdery Mildew (PM) Powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe graminis ) was evaluated at Wooster on May 22 when plants were late boot to early heading growth stage. (Feekes growth stage 10 to 10.1) Each plot was rated based on a 0 to 10 scale where: 0 = 0 - trace % leaf area covered; 1 = leaf 4 with trace-50%; 2 = leaf 3 with 1- 5%; 3 = leaf 3 with 5-15%; 4 = leaf 3 with > 15%; 5 = leaf 2 with 1-5%; 6 = leaf 2 with 5-15%; 7 = leaf 2 with >15%; 8 = leaf 1 with 1-5%; 9 = leaf 1 with 5-15%; and 10 = leaf 1 with > 15% leaf area covered. (leaf 1 = flag leaf). This scale takes into account the percentage leaf area affected and the progress of the disease upward on the plants.
Flour Yield Flour Yield is the percent flour yield from milled whole grain.
Flour Softness Flour softness is the percent of fine-granular milled
flour. Values higher than approximately 50 indicate kernel textures that are
appropriate for soft wheat. Generally, high values are more desirable for
milling and baking.
CULTURAL PRACTICES BY TEST SITE
|PLANT DATE||Oct. 3||Oct. 2||Oct. 4||Oct. 9||Oct. 8|
|Soil Test P (ppm)||32||21||71||38|
|Soil Test K (ppm)||177||163||123||185|
|HERBICIDES APPLIED||Stinger||2,4-D||Harmony Extra||Harmony Extra|
|HARVEST DATE||July 11||July 8||July 10||July 3|
Field and weather conditions were favorable for timely planting in October, 2001. Fall growth was excellent throughout most of the state and all test sites tillered well before the onset of winter dormancy. Winter survival was excellent with very little winterkill. March was generally cooler and wetter than normal and followed by a warmer and wetter than normal April that resulted in greater than normal growth. Early May was cooler and wetter than normal followed by warm and wet conditions in late May. June was dryer and hotter than normal. Rainfall was quite variable throughout the spring which resulted in both flooding and dry conditions in different parts of the state. Late May and early June were dryer than normal, resulting in very low disease levels in most areas. An unusual late freeze reduced grain yield at site 2 by up to 25 percent depending on variety and plot location in the field. Yield reductions at site 5 were as high as 50 percent for the plots of some varieties. The amount of yield loss was a function of the variety heading date, cold tolerance, growth stage, area of adaptation and location in the test field. Damage at both sites was quite variable making it impossible to determine variety differences for tolerance to freezing during heading.
Results of the performance evaluation of soft red winter wheat varieties can be found in Table 1. Tables 2 and 3 contain multi-year performance data.
Six soft white wheat varieties were evaluated along with the soft red varieties. Two of them were planted at all five sites and four others were tested at sites 1,2, and 3 only. Performance for the soft white varieties is presented in Table 4.
Two Triticale entries were also evaluated along with wheat entries. Triticale is a cross between wheat and rye with performance somewhat similar to wheat. The performance of the Triticale entries is presented in Table 5.
Nineteen varieties were tested at site 3 in rows spaced 15 inches apart in addition to the more normal 7.5 inch row spacing. Variety performance in the two row spacings presented in Table 6.
Table 7 contains the brand name and seed source of each variety tested in 2002.
Entries in the all data tables are arranged in order of increasing heading date averaged for several locations. A Least Significant Difference (LSD) is reported for yield and other characteristics. Yields and characteristics of two varieties are significantly different 70 percent of the time if their yields or characteristics differ by more than the LSD value reported. Flour and softness ratings were performed by USDA-ARS soft wheat quality laboratory, at OARDC in Wooster, OH., Charles Gaines, director.
Wheat diseases were very light at all locations. Although, powdery mildew was relatively low at Wooster, the disease was sufficiently uniform throughout the plots that variety comparisons could be made. Most varieties has little or no powdery mildew developing on the second leaf (leaf below the flag leaf) by late boot stage. Varieties with this level of susceptibility would likely have significant yield loss when weather conditions favor powdery mildew development.
Inclusion of varieties in the Ohio Wheat Performance Trial does not constitute an endorsement of a particular entry by the Ohio State University, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, or the Ohio State University Extension.
Go to Ohio Crop Performance
All educational programs conducted by Ohio State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, age, disability or Vietnam-era veteran status.
Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. and Director, OSU Extension.
TDD No. 800-589-8292 (Ohio only) or 614-292-1868